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Position vector , always points radially from the origin.
Velocity vector , always tangent to the path of motion.
Acceleration vector , not parallel to the radial motion but offset by the angular and Coriolis accelerations, nor tangent to the path but offset by the centripetal and radial accelerations.
Kinematic vectors in plane polar coordinates. Notice the setup is not restricted to 2d space, but a plane in any higher dimension.

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, that is constant speed along a circular path, is an example of a body experiencing acceleration resulting in velocity of a constant magnitude but change of direction. In this case, because the direction of the object's motion is constantly changing, being tangential to the circle, the object's linear velocity vector also changes, but its speed does not. This acceleration is a radial acceleration since it is always directed toward the centre of the circle and takes the magnitude:

where v {\displaystyle v} is the object's linear speed along the circular path. Equivalently, the radial acceleration vector ( a {\displaystyle \mathbf {a} } ) may be calculated from the object's angular velocity ω {\displaystyle \omega } :

where r {\displaystyle \mathbf {r} } is a vector directed from the centre of the circle and equal in magnitude to the radius. The negative shows that the acceleration vector is directed towards the centre of the circle (opposite to the radius).

The acceleration and the net force acting on a body in uniform circular motion are directed toward the centre of the circle; that is, it is Jil Sander Reversible Leather Coat Discounts Cheap Price In China Free Shipping Wiki Wear Resistance Sale Brand New Unisex RwZ8ZhphV
. Whereas the so-called ' Inexpensive Diane von Furstenberg KneeLength Sleeveless Dress Buy Cheap Visit New hCi2ROtkP
' appearing to act outward on the body is really a pseudo force experienced in the frame of reference of the body in circular motion, due to the body's linear momentum at a tangent to the circle.

26 Some critics have thus chosen to focus on the spectators’ experience of sound in relation with production, images, and cultural context. This approach has led to historical research on the evolution of recording technologies or the ancestors of the voice-over. Taking the spectators into account also allows one to focus on reception conditions as well as practices pertaining to film sound and to the voice. To consider the various factors at stake in the production and reception of film sound, it is necessary to combine approaches and methodologies. Rick Altman thus states:

When we understood cinema as text, we borrowed our terminology and our methodology from previously established textual domains. An understanding of cinema as event requires new terms and models for a new type of multi-dimensional analysis. everybody top Odd Molly Discount Collections Buy Cheap Footlocker Sale Cost Up To Date Genuine Cheap Price A7aAfGsfO

Altman defends an approach to cinema and film sound that considers “cinema events as the intersection of many separate lines of endeavor, throughout the production, reception, and cultural spheres.” 74 In this perspective, the diversity of the spectators must be taken into account, and the specific psychoanalytic explanation of the spectator’s desire is not satisfactory. Focusing on film sounds is also a way not to forget that film is “always the product of a performance.” 75 Rick Altman has paved the way to different analyses of film sound that link theory, aesthetics and history.

27 In one of the few monographs on the voice-over in cinema, Jean Châteauvert adopts a semio-pragmatic perspective Julia Lacetrimmed Floraljacquard Midi Dress Blue Paul amp; Joe Footlocker Online Really Discount Footlocker Low Cost W3ui7ifVF
to define the voice-over narrator and identify the elements that weigh on our perception of this voice. Pure Cotton Round Neck Short Sleeve TShirt soft white Marks and Spencer Free Shipping Official Clearance Buy Sale Manchester Great Sale Best Prices 287rmw1V8
In his study, Châteauvert applies a new narratological model to cinema. He mentions the “listening instruction” implied by the spectators’ desire to see the film. Indeed, Châteauvert sees the narrative structure as a device to direct our understanding of the film –one that, he insists, would not work without the spectator’s personal encyclopedia of references necessary to make sense out of a sound. The dynamic relation between the contents of the film and the conditions of reception is essential to a semio-pragmatic approach.

28 Alain Boillat expands on the historical approach first sketched out by Châteauvert and Sarah Kozloff, as well as relies on Altman’s work in his important research on the history of the voice-over. In , he analyzes early practices of orality, storytelling and commentary linked to images. 78 Throughout his book, he is conscious of the necessity to consider the specificity of recorded film sound. Thanks to the definition of a continuum going from “attraction-voice” to “narration-voice” (from the voice that catches our attention to the voice that tells a story), the author opens new perspectives on the relations between audio and visual phenomena, thus discussing key notions in film studies. Although Boillat’s discourse focuses on cinema, his conclusion mentions the new uses of the voice-over and outlines potential areas that could be studied thanks to his theoretical framework. He thus states that:

dubbing, post-synchronization of animated films and voice-mail belong to the action-voice model, while radio hosting, and advertising correspond to the attraction-voice model, mainstream films and video-games resort to narration-voice, while other productions (trailers, websites, etc.) are somewhere in between the latter two. 79

29 In a pragmatic perspective, François Jost briefly outlined three ways to study television sound in its own right. 80 The first is theoretical and implies analyzing the audience’s new skills as well as the way sounds work across various TV genres. The second approach is historical and aims at showing the shift from intermediality to intergenericity. Finally, the third perspective is aesthetic and seeks to determine how television sounds, speech, and music are paired with images. These three approaches aim at comprehending the way television sound flux requires specific enunciative and cognitive skills from the audience. In a brief analysis of American television series as symptoms of our societies, Jost describes the use of the voice-over device in recent popular series as the result of the growing importance of intimacy. 81 Although the size of this latter book prevented the author from following the paths outlined above, the study of the voice-over in television series would certainly benefit from the perspectives sketched out by Jost.

30 Laurent Jullier is the main representative of French film researchers adopting a cognitivist perspective that could correspond to the first path described by Jost. Jullier’s approach combines different tools and goes further than Châteauvert in his analysis of reading processes implied by filmic and televisual narratives. Although his book, , treats television and cinema somewhat interchangeably, one difference he does point out is that in television a-filmic sounds are more common and lead to a blending of the three cinematic spaces (on, off, over). 82 A few years later, Jullier developed this analysis in a paper on speech and sound in television from a cognitivist perspective. Chinti And Parker Woman Striped Stretchknit Dress Navy Size S Chinti and Parker Browse Cheap Online Discount Get To Buy Get Authentic Cheap Price Clearance Limited Edition dTHTij
In this paper, Jullier distinguishes between two modes of television spectatorship: being “in front” (television comes across as a mere “screen” whose contents do not engage the viewer’s attention fully); and being “inside” (television appears as a “window” whose contents engage the viewer’s attention and allow for identification or even interaction). Jullier relies on cognitive psychology to study the auditory position of the spectator in the TV-as-window model. He shows that some categories used for the analysis of cinema sound are not as productive when applied to television: it is the case, for instance, of the oppositions between on and off or diegetic and extra-diegetic. Jullier also details the technological specificities of TV sound, which is generally smoother and conceals spatiality to erase the off-space. Thus, the way voices are recorded and mixed on television encourages vertical causality (the illusion that sound and image, because they are synchronous, have a causal relationship). Finally, while television voices do have power (owing to their combination of two models, that of the storytelling mother and the lecturer), Jullier insists that this power should not be overestimated. The power of the voices, he explains, stems essentially from the power of language.

31 These new perspectives underline the evolution of the study of sound in audiovisual media since the generalization of synchronized film sound. The rise of audiovisual media other than film and television, and the generalization of the use of the voice by such media reinforce the need for theoretical tools that apprehend the audio-phenomenon in relation with the contexts of production and reception.

If a pictorial, graphic or sculptural work is a useful article, it is copyrighted only if its aesthetic features are separable from its utilitarian features. A useful article is an article having an intrinsic utilitarian function that is not merely to portray the appearance of the article or to convey information. They must be separable from the functional aspect to be copyrighted. [45]

Main articles: Copyright term and List of countries' copyright length
Expansion of U.S. copyright law (currently based on the date of creation or publication).

Copyright subsists for a variety of lengths in different jurisdictions. The length of the term can depend on several factors, including the type of work (e.g. musical composition, novel), whether the work has been published , and whether the work was created by an individual or a corporation. In most of the world, the default length of copyright is the life of the author plus either 50 or 70 years. In the United States, the term for most existing works is a fixed number of years after the date of creation or publication. Under most countries' laws (for example, the United States [46] and the United Kingdom [47] ), copyrights expire at the end of the calendar year in question.

The length and requirements for copyright duration are subject to change by legislation, and since the early 20th century there have been a number of adjustments made in various countries, which can make determining the duration of a given copyright somewhat difficult. For example, the United States used to require copyrights to be renewed after 28 years to stay in force, and formerly required a copyright notice upon first publication to gain coverage. In Italy and France, there were post-wartime extensions that could increase the term by approximately 6 years in Italy and up to about 14 in France. Many countries have extended the length of their copyright terms (sometimes retroactively). International treaties establish minimum terms for copyrights, but individual countries may enforce longer terms than those. Sale Genuine 2018 Unisex Sale Online Peter Pilotto Embroidered Peplum Top ME2pARem

In the United States, all books and other works published before 1923 have expired copyrights and are in the public domain. chunky oversized sweater Blue Maison Martin Margiela For Sale Footlocker oibc72US
In addition, works published before 1964 that did not have their copyrights renewed 28 years after first publication year also are in the public domain. Hirtle points out that the great majority of these works (including 93% of the books) were not renewed after 28 years and are in the public domain. [50] Books originally published outside the US by non-Americans are exempt from this renewal requirement, if they are still under copyright in their home country.

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